Coronary heart disease: symptoms and treatment

Coronary heart disease: symptoms and treatment

Coronary heart disease: symptoms and treatment

Coronary heart disease: symptoms and treatment

Risk factors

Several thousand years ago, men practically did not know what coronary heart disease was. They just didn’t live up to it. In addition, the food was healthier. The main part of the diet consisted of mushrooms, berries, root vegetables and fish. brew. And over the centuries, I have accumulated a bunch of risk factors that today lead to the early development of atherosclerosis.

Cholesterol, officially declared the main enemy of mankind, is another reason for the possible development of diseases of the cardiovascular system. However, not everything is so clear. Firstly, while cholesterol is normal, he is our assistant. Secondly, there is a distinction between “good” cholesterol, which cleanses the vessel wall from “bad”. An increase in the amount of “good” cholesterol is nothing terrible, but if there is too much “bad”, then it begins to be postponed in reserve. And first of all on the walls of blood vessels. An atherosclerotic plaque is formed, which over time can turn into a blood clot or completely block the lumen of the vessel.

High blood pressure is no less a “heart” enemy. Under pressure, the vascular wall loses its elasticity, damage may appear on it, which the body immediately tries to “plaster” with the same cholesterol. In addition, in hypertensive patients, a well-inflated muscle forms instead of a heart muscle – myocardial hypertrophy develops. The heart is less supplied with blood and ages faster. Source .

In addition to coronary heart disease, a young man may have a heart defect. The most frequent of them are congenital. Bicuspid aortic valve and a defect of the septum between the atria – these diseases do not give any symptoms for a long time. Therefore, everyone is obliged to do a once-in-a-lifetime heart examination.

When a cholesterol plaque narrows a blood vessel, the heart muscle lacks blood. The young heart copes with this with the help of bypass vessels, but then the reserves are depleted and the myocardium signals trouble. First, unpleasant sensations, discomfort behind the sternum, and then pressing pains that occur after physical exertion and pass during rest. This is how angina pectoris occurs, or, as it was called earlier, chest toad. On the one hand, this is, of course, bad, but on the other, pain is an SOS signal. It is much worse when the heart does not signal its problem. There is a so-called painless myocardial ischemia, the consequence of which may well be a sudden heart attack. As doctors say – “against the background of complete well-being.”

Every person at least once every 2 years, and men after 30 years preferably once a year, it is necessary to take a biochemical blood test, in which we are most interested in sugar and cholesterol. It is very important to pass a detailed analysis, which reflects not only the level of total cholesterol, but its components – the very “good” and “bad” manifestations.

Another important biochemical indicator is glucose. If the sugar level is elevated, large molecules seem to “scratch” the vessel wall, accelerating the deposition of cholesterol. Therefore, if on an empty stomach at least once the blood sugar level exceeds 6 mmol / l, it is necessary to conduct a load test with glucose.

At least once a month, it is worth monitoring the blood pressure level. If it regularly rises above 140/90 mmHg – it’s time to take action. Often, in order for the pressure to normalize, it is enough to reduce body weight and give up bad habits.

A man who considers himself absolutely healthy should have a cardiogram 1 time a year. Unfortunately, its effectiveness in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease is average – it shows a lack of blood supply in about half of the patients. But it will help to identify other cardiac problems – myocardial hypertrophy, arrhythmia.

If you notice that after exertion, shortness of breath, unpleasant sensations or pressing pains behind the sternum appear. A cardiogram taken during physical activity – on a bicycle (bicycle ergometry) or a treadmill (treadmill test) will be more indicative.

During the exercise test, there were data for insufficient blood supply to the myocardium (the so-called “criteria for myocardial ischemia” appeared)? So, we are talking about the final, more serious study – coronarography. During the study, specialists will have to pierce the femoral or brachial artery and pass a catheter with a contrast agent through it to the heart. This study is increasingly performed on an outpatient basis and gives the final answer – whether there are atherosclerotic plaques in the heart vessels, how many of them and how dangerous. The dangerous ones are those that narrow the lumen of the vessel by more than 75%. Fortunately, the “find” discovered in time can be neutralized by stenting.

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